During three years of sampling for potato psyllids (Bactericera cockerelli) across Canada, we found
small numbers in Alberta (2015-2017, increasing annually), Saskatchewan (first time in 2016), and
Manitoba (first adults, 2016). No potato psyllids have been found on sample cards from any sites
east of Manitoba.
In southern Alberta, the range of potato psyllids has expanded to sites throughout the potatogrowing area, where in 2017 they appeared on sampling cards of over 70 per cent of 45 sites regularly sampled (we thank the growers for co-operation and access to University of Lethbridge samplers at 45 sites, with a minimum of 4 sampling cards per field, and Crop Diversification Centre South for managing two additional sites and sending sample cards). For the full story, click here.
Christine Noronha, of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, has unveiled an effective wireworm trap. "The trap is a very simple light trap, called the NELT. It uses a solar powered light source to attract the adults of wireworms, click beetles. The beetles walk to the light and fall into a cup buried in the ground under the light," Noronha explained.
This is the first trap that catches female click beetles. Trapping the egg-laying females will gradually help reduce the wireworm population in the field. For the full story, click here.
An infected potato psyllid insect carries the Lso (Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum) pathogen that can cause zebra chip disease in potato crops.
Zebra chip has affected potato crops in the U.S., Mexico and New Zealand and caused millions of dollars in losses. Potatoes with zebra chip develop unsightly dark lines when fried, making affected potatoes unsellable.
The first detection of Lso came from sampling cards collected at one site south of Highway 3, near Lethbridge, Alta. For the full story, click here.
"Buckwheat is beneficial to potato farmers especially as a rotation crop that aids in soil health and reduces certain pests – and as it happens, it makes a very fine whiskey," said Beamish, who is hosting the 2017 Ignition Fund award ceremony at Deep Roots Distillery. To read the full story, click here.
Japan's Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries imposed a ban on importing all U.S. chipping potatoes in April 2006 in response to the discovery of a quarantined pest, the pale cyst nematode, in a small area of Eastern Idaho.
Trade was restored with other U.S. chipping potato states about a year later, but restrictions on Idaho were left in place.
This spring, IPC officials said Japanese chip makers experienced a shortage following a poor domestic harvest and had to stop selling some products. Japan will continue to exclude any Idaho chipping potatoes from Bonneville and Bingham counties, which encompass the PCN quarantine area. READ MORE
Researchers are hoping Canadian potato growers will soon be able to use an innovative approach to control wireworms. This method uses just a few grams of insecticide per hectare applied to cereal seeds that are planted along with untreated seed potatoes. It provides very good wireworm control for the whole growing season, with a lower environmental risk than currently available insecticide options.
Just because black cutworms don’t overwinter in Canada doesn’t mean they aren’t a threat to potato crops. The insects spend their winters in the southern United States but travel north on low-level jet streams and, once they cross the border into Canada, they look for a tasty food source. Black cutworm moths prefer some of the weeds that grow in and around fields and, while potatoes are not their favourite food, they will adapt and can wreak havoc on an unmonitored field.
A researcher at the University of Minnesota says the cutworms’ new interest in potatoes could be the result of a change in potential host plants. If the moth’s desired weed is being well controlled in a field, it will eat what is available where the wind sets it down.
“Black cutworm moths are active flyers,” explains Ian MacRae, the extension entomologist at the university’s Crookston research station. “These insects can travel hundreds of miles in a short period of time aided by an extremely efficient bug highway [a jet stream].”
MacRae says if the wind and temperature are conducive and Canadian potato producers are able to get their crop planted in good conditions, there is a chance the moths will arrive about the same time as the plants are emerging. The possibility exists that early arrival could spawn a second generation of the insects later in the season. He says, once landed, reproduction occurs when the moths lay eggs. The emerging larvae will feed on the foliage, but once at the fourth or fifth larval stage they will begin actively eating near the base of the host plant, cutting it off.
“The first you might notice a cutworm problem will be plants that are cut at the base or wilting,” MacRae explains. “At night, the worms burrow into the soil and if the tubers are close to the surface, they will burrow into the tuber. They can do more damage to tubers in dry conditions because cracks in the soil will give the cutworms access to what is underneath.”
Damage to potato crops early in the season can be a greater problem because the young plants will not recover from being chewed off. There is a possibility that the seed piece might send up another shoot, but the crop will be set back. MacRae suggests early scouting will help identify the problem and allow time for control. There are effective insecticides for control of black cutworm and there are sources of natural mortality, such as predators or parasitic wasps. Birds may be less effective because of the location of the worms and their habit of eating at night.
“If you find yourself at a threshold of about 30 per cent of your plants cut, you may want to apply an insecticide,” MacRae says. “If defoliation is this high, it may be that natural mortality sources are not functioning well.”
Ensure proper identification of the larvae as black cutworms so the correct product can be chosen for control. Combining regular field scouting with pheromone or light traps to catch the male moths is an effective way to identify the insects.
“When scouting, look for stalks at an odd angle or wilting,” MacRae suggests. “Look in the evening when the cutworms come out to feed, and look as much as a half metre away from the plant because they are good walkers. Black cutworms are aptly named because they are a dark caterpillar with a waxy appearance. They will often curl into a C if disturbed. They hang out during the day under clods of soil or in cracks.”
MacRae says climate change may be the reason black cutworms are being seen farther north. He doesn’t believe they will begin to overwinter in Ontario or the Prairies, but a warmer climate means they develop faster and may overwinter in more northern states, making the migration north earlier and causing greater problems.
“Black cutworms have certainly become a problem in Ontario in the last few years,” MacRae says. “They can be a significant pest issue.”
MacRae adds there are some cultural practices that may minimize the impact of black cutworms when they arrive. Planting late can put new, young plants directly on a collision course with the moths and their offspring, so plant early, if possible. He says controlling weeds will reduce the areas where the moths might lay eggs. Growers in the United States use pre-plant tillage to turn over the soil to destroy potential habitat.
To date, there is no accurate monitoring system in place for potato crops, according to MacRae, but the cutworms also like corn and the corn growers in some states, such as Iowa, have a black cutworm monitoring network. “The moths seem to appear in Ontario about three weeks after they are seen in the United States,” he says. Ontario growers could tap into the monitoring networks south of the border and use that information as an early warning system, he suggests.
Black cutworms could be considered a stealthy yield robber because by the time you begin to notice a problem, it could be a challenge to execute effective control. The best defence is early and frequent field scouting and adopting cultural practices that could minimize the attractiveness of the crop. MacRae believes Canadian potato growers will see black cutworm more often in the coming years, so preparation for and understanding of the pest is a wise approach.
There are other, more sophisticated methods of testing for the presence of late blight spores in growers’ fields, but that’s precisely the reason Eugenia Banks selected a very simple test for her 2016 project.
Sept. 8, 2016 - According to Manitoba Agriculture, aphid counts in weeks 9 increased slightly in most locations. However, one western field had no aphid trapped. While another field in the same region continued to have massive numbers; with significantly higher potato aphids compared to last week. Most of the seed fields are being desiccated, so this will be the last week of aphid report.
One more potato psyllid adult was confirmed on Aug. 24 in a card from Northfolk-Treherne Rural Municipality.For more information and detailed report please visit: www.mbpotatoes.ca
August 26, 2016 - According to Dr. Vikram Bisht, of Manitoba Agriculture, aphid counts in weeks 8 in all but one sample were low. There was one Green Peach Aphid (GPA) trapped in southern seed growing area, but not anywhere else. Potato aphids were trapped in southern and central areas. One field showed a sudden influx of aphids, probably from nearby crops being harvested or desiccated. There were low counts of Aster leafhoppers were trapped in all seed areas.
Some of the seed fields are being desiccated, so Bisht reports there will be one more week of aphid monitoring. The results from suction and pan traps in seed fields for the 6th and 7th week of sampling can be seen in a chart (please click here):
In 2016 season, as in 2015, as part of the Canadian Hort Council, Growing Forward 2, Canadian Potato Psyllid and Zebra Chip Monitoring Network project, yellow sticky cards are being sent to Dan Johnson, Univ of Lethbridge. One potato psyllid adult was confirmed today (August 22) in a card (in field July 12-18) from Northfolk-Treherne Rural Municipality. This is the first find for 2016 in a province outside Alberta.
North Dakota has also reported occurrence of potato psyllids in their fields. "We have confirmed that psyllids are present potato fields in western ND. Psyllids are the vector of zebra chip disease and can do damage without the Lso bacterium (Gary Secor, NDSU)".
The number of new finds of late blight seems to have slowed down, even though the disease continues to be a concern. All of the isolates tested so far, were determined to be US23. Late blight was found in market-garden plots of potato and tomato in Oakville area, in Central Manitoba.
There were scattered rains and strong winds on Aug. 4 and 7, which may have spread the disease.
It is extremely important to continue to scout for late blight, especially in low lying, irrigation pivot center, wheel tracks of irrigation systems (guns/pivots), tree-line protected areas and under hydro-power lines (areas where applicators may have difficulty covering). Full fungicide coverage of foliage in high risk areas should be maintained. It is also critical at this time to monitor potato and tomato plants in home gardens.
The DSVs (late blight risk values) accumulated over seven days at various weather stations suggest mostly moderate risk in most of the province. There is forecast for a few rain days in many potato growing areas, in the coming week.
Due to wet and warm conditions there are reports of stem rot/blackleg. Hail damage and European Corn Borer (ECB) injury appears to have contributed to some of the stem rotting. Early blight in general appears to be very minor.
The aphid counts remained low in the third week (July 5-11) and the fourth week (July 12-18) especially in the southern seed production area. Potato aphids, but not Green Peach aphids (GPAs), were found in these weeks. There were no aster leafhoppers (ALH) and potato leafhoppers (PLH) noted in the traps.
In the fifth week (July 19-25), the aphid counts have increased significantly over the previous week. Green peach aphids were trapped from the Portage area only. The potato aphids were trapped in all the three seed production areas. Potato aphids are fairly efficient PVY transmitters, but not as efficient as GPAs. The “other aphids” in the traps are poor transmitters, but make up with higher numbers.
With other crops in the region maturing and near harvest, the aphids will find the green potato crop very attractive. It may be helpful to the seed growers to consider tank mixing insecticide with the aphid-oils application, especially if the crop planted had some level of PVY in the seed itself.
The results from suction and pan traps in seed fields for the third, fourth and fifth week can be found here.
Currently, there is no report of any serious Colorado potato beetle (CPB) feeding in commercial potatoes.
European Corn Borer:
Delta trap monitoring for the ECB moths using pheromone lures continue to show some adult moth activity – in Carberry, Brookdale in Rural Municipality of North Cypress-Langford, Treherne (RM of Victoria), Shilo (RM Cornwallis), Glenboro (RM of Glenboro-South Cypress) and Carman (RM of Dufferin) area.
After a peak activity in mid-July, the number of trapping has reduced. After the appearance of very young larvae (Figure 1) was the trigger for insecticide application in fields close to last year’s serious infestations. Some ECB injury and larvae were noticed in the Carberry area.
April 28, 2016, Charlottetown – Christine Noronha, an entomologist with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada’s Charlottetown Research and Development Centre, has designed an environmentally green trap that could be a major breakthrough in the control of wireworms, an increasingly destructive agricultural pest on Prince Edward Island and across Canada.
In this exslusive webinar hosted by Potatoes in Canada magazine, Christine will share details about the Noronha Elaterid Light Trap (NELT). Don't miss the opportunity to ask questions and learn more from Christine Noronha.
Date: May 12, 2016
Time: 2 p.m. ADT (1 p.m. EDT)
March 14, 2016, Prince Edward Island – Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada entomologist Dr. Christine Noronha has designed a simple and environmentally green trap using hardware store items that could be a major breakthrough in the control of wireworms, an increasingly destructive agricultural pest on PEI and across Canada.
The Noronha Elaterid Light Trap, or “NELT”, is made with three pieces - a small solar-powered spotlight, a plastic white cup and a piece of screening. The light is set close to the ground to attract the source of the wireworms, the female click beetles that emerge from the ground in May and June. Each of these beetles can lay between 100 and 200 eggs that produce the larvae known as wireworms. In a six-week test with 10 traps, more than 3,000 females were captured in the plastic cups, preventing the birth of up to 600,000 wireworms. The screening prevents beneficial predator insects from being caught in the trap.
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada’s Office of Intellectual Property is trademarking the trap name and design and work is underway to find a manufacturer who might be interested in mass-producing the trap.
The NELT is the latest in a series of wireworm control measures being developed by a team that includes Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, the PEI Potato Board, the PEI Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, the Pest Management Regulatory Agency, Cavendish Farms, the PEI Horticultural Association, growers and consulting agronomists. Wireworms live in the soil and drill their way through tuber and root crops like potatoes and carrots. The PEI Potato Board estimated wireworm damage to the province’s potato crop alone at $6 million in 2014.
To learn more about the NELT, be sure to sign up for an exclusive webinar with Christine Noronha, hosted by Potatoes in Canada magazine, on May 12.
New hope is on the horizon for potato growers engaged in the ongoing battle against Colorado potato beetle (CPB). Researchers are currently field-testing one of the most effective controls ever developed for the potato’s chief insect villain, and it is entirely chemical-free.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process whereby RNA (ribonucleic acid) molecules activate a protective response against parasite nucleotide sequences by inhibiting their gene expression. In other words, it is the method by which organisms – including pests such as CPB – defend themselves against threats and regulate their own genes. But the same process that is used by a beetle to protect itself can be used to destroy it when it consumes the long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in genetically modified plants.
Since 2009, researchers at the Max Planck Institute in Potsdam and Jena, Germany, have been developing genetically modified potato plants to enable their chloroplasts to accumulate dsRNA targeted against essential CPB genes. After feeding on a potato’s leaves – and ingesting the dsRNA – the beetles in the study showed 100 per cent mortality within five days.
Why chloroplasts, rather than plant cell nuclei? In past breeding projects, expression of dsRNA in potato plants’ nuclei has proven inefficient because natural RNAi pathways in nuclei prevented the plant from producing enough long dsRNA. But long dsRNA are free to accumulate in chloroplasts – which have no RNAi mechanism – and the plants are fully protected against CPB.
According to Jiang Zhang, a professor with the College of Life Science at Hubei University in China, and the lead on the project, the technology shows great promise for the future of pest management, but there are no immediate plans for commercialization until all regulatory hurdles have been overcome.
“We encourage more scientists and industry involvement in this field for a better future,” Zhang says. “There is still a long way to go to make it really useful in daily life and be accepted by customers.”
RNAi for control of CPB has also gained significant momentum in private research and development. Monsanto and Syngenta have both devoted major investments toward the technology.
In early 2015, Monsanto’s BioDirect technology platform targeted at CPB advanced to Phase 2 – early product development – of the company’s research and development pipeline. The product will have to complete advanced product development and pre-launch before broad commercialization early in the next decade.
While the principle is the same, Monsanto’s product works differently than Max Planck’s modified potato plant: it is sprayed onto the plant’s foliage. Rather than expressing dsRNA in its leaves, dsRNA is applied exogenously to the plant.
“The Colorado potato beetle consumes the leaves of the potato plant where we can focus the BioDirect application, versus needing a plant to produce the dsRNA targeting the pest below-ground where sprays cannot reach,” explains Greg Heck, weed control team lead for Monsanto’s chemistry technology area.
Heck says there are thousands of dsRNA naturally present in host plants that serve a variety of functions, and beetles consume and incorporate dsRNA all the time. “When targeting them for pest control, we seek to supply one additional dsRNA that will turn down a specific gene critical to their ability to feed and grow on the plant.
“Field research conducted on our BioDirect treatment for Colorado potato beetles has already demonstrated some early positive results. This includes reduced Colorado potato beetle larva infestation and plant defoliation in multiple geographies.”
Syngenta’s most advanced RNA-based biocontrol targets CPB in potato – and is also applied via a spray. The company has tested the product in multiple geographies over several years with positive results, says Luc Maertens, Syngenta’s RNAi platform lead based in Belgium. The company hopes to commercialize the product early in the next decade pending continued development and regulatory reviews.
Maertens says the company’s biocontrol is highly selective and starts to work before CPB can cause too much damage.
“The biocontrol is not systemic [in the plant], nor does it work through contact,” he says. “It does not change or have any effect on the DNA of the pest, nor does it involve genetic modification of the plant.”
No technology can work forever, however. Insect resistance to RNAi is a potential risk – one companies and researchers alike are keen to avoid so the technology has maximum benefit and longevity.
Maertens says that as resistance emerges to existing technologies, and the pest spectrum shifts along with climate change and other factors, growers’ needs will change. “Those challenges cannot be answered by only one technology,” he says. “It is imperative to gain insights into probable resistance mechanisms to RNAi triggers in insects, to monitor possible resistance in the field, and to support the use of the technology with appropriate stewardship requirements.”
Of the two methods of RNAi application (genetic modification and spray-on), Zhang believes the former might be better for growers. “Applying dsRNA exogenously is much less cost-effective than expressing dsRNA in the plant itself,” he says. “Spraying may also cause other potential problems in the environment.”
RNAi is not meant to be a silver bullet and should be used as part of a multifaceted pest control strategy. Regardless of the method of application, RNAi may soon be working in a field near you.
February 12, 2016, Calgary, Alta – Potato growers across Canada have the option of applying Delegate insecticide by air for control of Colorado potato beetle and European corn borer.
“If a seed treatment was not used, or is not offering sufficient control of insects, plan to use Delegate insecticide in your crop,” says Mark Alberts, product manager at Dow AgroSciences. “Delegate is a non-neonic product which provides rapid foliar control of target pests. This aerial application registration is an opportunity for applicators and growers to integrate an excellent new control measure with a unique mode of action into their programs.”
The active ingredient in Delegate is Spinetoram, a member of the spinosyn class of chemistry (Group 5) and controls a broad spectrum of pests by both contact and ingestion. It provides knockdown and residual activity in many fruit, vegetable and field crops, including potatoes. According to the company, Delegate affects the insect nervous system. It does not interact with the known binding sites of other classes of insecticide. Because of Delegate’s mode of action, it is an excellent rotational product that can be used in an IPM system.
Further information on Delegate is available at DowAgro.ca.
Nov. 10, 2015 – It is never too early to find out about the new crop-protection products, reminds Eugenia Banks, potato specialist at OMAFRA, in her latest potato update.
These new products were recently registered and should be available for the 2016 season. Here is a list of pesticides, some with new active ingredients:
|Trade name||Application method||Disease or insect|
(Syngenta) Group 7
|In-furrow||*Suppression of Rhizoctonia stem canker, stolon canker and black scurf|
(BASF) Group 7
|Foliar and aerial||Control of early blight and white mould.
Use of a non-ionic surfactant is recommended
(BASF) Group 7
Control of Rhizoctonia canker
Group 3A and 28
Control of black curworm, variegated cutworm, armyworm, potato psyllid
(Syngenta) Group 6
Control of potato psyllid and spider mites (not a pest in Ontario)
Control is at least 85 per cent control
*Suppression is 65 to 85 per cent control
"May provide some control" is less than 65 per cent control.
There are also label changes to some registered products. For instance, the label of Rampart (phosphite) has been expanded to a foliar application for suppression of late blight and pink rot. In general, any product that suppresses late blight should be tank mixed with a compatible control product. A better approach would be to tank mix two compatible control products. If the weather is favorable for late blight, this disease can explode and devastate potato fields very quickly.
There are new registrations for potato psyllids. This tiny insect is the vector of the bacterium that causes zebra chip. This past season, I placed several yellow sticky cards in three Alliston fields to monitor for potato psyllids, but no potato psyllids were caught on the cards. In the past, this insect has been reported in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Quebec. Psyllids were found in Ontario a few years ago, but only in a greenhouse, not in the field. It is always good to have registered products available for the control of potential pests. There will be more updates to come as new products are registered.
The root-knot nematode is a parasitic roundworm that can infect about 2,000 plants and is one of the three most damaging parasitic nematodes to agricultural crops worldwide. Photo by UNH.
Sept. 14, 2015, Durham, NH – Roundworms that feed on plants cause approximately $100 billion in annual global crop damage. But a new way of disrupting the motility and reproduction of these plant parasitic nematodes discovered by a University of New Hampshire (UNH) scientist may one day provide farmers with a new way to safely manage these agricultural pests.
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